I recently came across an issue where a publishing pages library "Pages" seemed to be causing errors. I saw Correlation ID errors from the Site Actions menu, Edit Page and Manage Content and Structure menu options. I also saw an error from the parent site collection's Manage Content and Structure tree view navigation when clicking on the subsite containing the offending Pages library. The error I saw in the ULS: Pages list cache permission check failed. Pages list with this URL is missing: Pages. As it turns out, this site was in a SharePoint 2010 environment but still in 2007 mode.
To resolve the issue, check the offending document library setings, then got to advanced settings, and scroll down to the bottom, make sure "Launch forms in dialog" is set to No. Mine was initially set to Yes and when I changed the setting to No the problem was resolved.